Ode to a Dreamer of Dreams

Dear Dr. Sacks,

Like the late Carl Sagan, you have a gentle way of magnifying everything into brilliant resolution and reminding us of our place in the universe. I always look forward to reading your books and opinion pieces, as you put which things matter into perspective. Last month, I was quite delighted to read of your love for the physical sciences, also beautifully described in Frank Wilczek’s A Beautiful Question. Beauty can truly be found in any field or context and Wilczek’s coverage of the concept reminds me of that Gerard Manley Hopkins’ poem, “Pied Beauty,” in which the author pronounces, “Glory be to God for dappled things.” As Adam Frank puts it, “Science — under all its theories, equations, experiments and data — is really trying to teach us to see the sacred in the mundane and the profound in the prosaic.”

Indeed, few experiences prove as humbling as observing the heavens. The night sky brings to mind the opening lines of a personal favorite: “Let us go then, you and I/ When the evening is spread out against the sky/ Like a patient etherized upon a table.” Meanwhile, consciousness continues to prove an elusive idea, as you mentioned. Is it a purely biological phenomenon or does it extend into the philosophical and spiritual realms? I think the most beautiful aspect of our universe is the sense of infinite mystery surrounding it; as Anaïs Nin explains it, “The possession of knowledge does not kill the sense of wonder and mystery. There is always more mystery.”

From your stories of patient case studies to your descriptions on the benefits of musical therapy, your words offered comfort and solace amidst adversity and uncertainty. When I was struggling with my own medical challenges (though nothing as serious as your struggles), I found works such as William Ernest Henley’s “Invictus” and Dylan Thomas’ “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” to be particularly uplifting and encouraging, and perhaps you will, too. I think the practice of medicine allows one to grow closer to his fellow brethren and fulfill the insightful words of Countee Cullen: “Your grief and mine/Must intertwine/Like sea and river/Be fused and mingle/Diverse yet single/Forever and forever.” I only hope I will fulfill my role with the same patience, compassion, dignity, and grace that you exemplify in your daily life. As one chapter closes and another begins, I wish you laughter and joy in the company of friends and family, exchanges of love among kindred spirits, courage as you confront your final battles, and peace and contentment in the knowledge that you have touched more lives than you know. From the deepest parts of my being, I thank you. Stay gold, dear Captain, our Captain.

Warm regards,

Nita Jain

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Top Ten Favorite Scientists

I was recently asked to make a list of my top ten favorite scientists, and after some deliberation, these are the people I chose:

Feynman

  1. Richard Feynman: While Feynman made outstanding contributions to our understanding of quantum physics and to the Manhattan project, he is perhaps most remembered for his teaching as evidenced by the still-beloved Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman even rejected a job offer from the Institute for Advanced Study, a research center whose staff boasted luminaries like Albert Einstein and Kurt Gödel, because there were no students there to teach.
  2. Marie Curie: Curie conducted pioneering experiments into the nature of radioactivity and also discovered radium and polonium, receiving Nobel Prizes in both chemistry and physics for her efforts. Upon observing radium’s destructive effects on her own healthy tissue, she reasoned that radium could also be used to destroy infected tissue, giving birth to the idea of radiation therapy.
  3. Isaac Newton: From his work on optics to his laws of motion and universal gravitation, Newton was a central figure in the scientific revolution. He developed the reflecting telescope as well as differential and integral calculus to explain the elliptical orbits of celestial bodies all before his 26th birthday.
  4. Rosalind Franklin: Franklin’s X-ray diffraction data was arguably the most important puzzle piece in the discovery of DNA’s double helical structure. She also contributed to our molecular knowledge of viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus and the poliovirus.
  5. Nikola Tesla: While Tesla is perhaps best known for developing the alternating current motor, the Serbian-American innovator also experimented with X-rays, performed short-range demonstrations of radio communication two years before Marconi, and invented the high-voltage transformer known as the Tesla coil.
  6. Clair Patterson: Not only did geochemist Clair Patterson calculate an extremely accurate estimate for the age of the Earth using lead dating, but he also served as an activist after discovering the toxic effects of lead on human health. His persistent campaigning eventually led to a ban on the use of lead in consumer products.
  7. Linus Pauling: Pauling made incredible insights into the nature of the chemical bond, including the prediction of secondary structures such as the alpha helix and the beta sheet. Pauling also developed the concepts of electronegativity and orbital hybridization and remains the only person to have received two unshared Nobel Prizes – for Chemistry in 1954 and for Peace in 1962.
  8. Michael Faraday: It has often been said that Michael Faraday was the greatest discovery of eminent chemist Humphry Davy. Faraday established the principle of electromagnetic induction, created the first electrical generator, and even initiated the first Christmas Lectures series in 1825 to teach science to children.
  9. Louis Pasteur: Best known for his namesake process to prevent bacterial contamination, Pasteur was instrumental in disproving the idea of spontaneous generation. His work on the germ theory of disease also led him to create vaccines for anthrax and rabies.
  10. Craig Venter: When the Human Genome Project began in 1990, progress initially got off to a very slow start. In 1998, Craig Venter dramatically sped up the process using a technique known as whole genome shotgun sequencing. As we now enter the era of genomic medicine, the variable uses of the sequenced human genome are steadily unfolding.

If I were to make a longer list, I would probably include a lot more notable physicists, including Albert Einstein, James Clerk Maxwell, Max Planck, and Alan Guth. Copernicus, Galileo, Cecilia Payne, Annie Jump Cannon, and Henrietta Swan Leavitt all helped advance our understanding of the cosmos. I would also have liked to acknowledge the many scientists who were involved in atomic theory, such as Democritus, James Dalton, Niels Bohr, Ernest Rutherford, and J.J. Thomson. Mendeleev classified the elements periodically, and Carl Woese classified life on Earth. Gregor Mendel founded the field of genetics, and Meselson and Stahl performed an experiment that supported the hypothesis of semiconservative DNA replication. Along with Pasteur, both Robert Koch and Ferdinand Koch helped found bacteriology and establish the credibility of the germ theory of disease. Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered the first antibiotic in the form of penicillin, and Jonas Salk developed the first successful polio vaccine. On the computer science front, Ada Lovelace, Hedy Lamarr, and Tim Berners-Lee made significant contributions, the latter of whom is responsible for having developed the algorithms on which the World Wide Web depends. Polymaths Archimedes, Leonardo da Vinci, and Benjamin Franklin advanced our knowledge of the sciences as well as other diverse fields.

This list is just one person’s opinion, so I invite you to share yours. Who would you include in your top ten favorite scientists? Leave your suggestions in the comments below!

The Creative Power of Destruction

Ceremony

Franklin College of Arts and Sciences ambassadors (left to right: Abiola Fakile, Omar Martinez-Uribe, Blake Edwards, and myself) with Lydia Babcock-Adams (left) and Dean Alan Dorsey at a groundbreaking ceremony for the University of Georgia Science Learning Center on Tuesday, Aug. 26, 2014 in Athens, Ga.

Today, I ran into a beloved biochemistry professor of mine at the groundbreaking ceremony for UGA’s new Science Learning Center. I told him about a book I’m reading called Life Unfolding: How the Human Body Creates Itself by Jamie Davies and about how Chapter 17 began with a quote off a car bumper sticker: “Support bacteria–they’re the only culture some people have.” This professor had himself proposed his own idea for a car bumper sticker in the introductory biochemistry class he teaches: “HONC if you love biochemistry” (HONC referring to the general rules by which hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon form one, two, three, and four covalent bonds, respectively, in stable organic molecules).

A Double-Edged Sword
I asked him if he had heard about the researchers from Johns Hopkins who have been using modified flesh-eating bacteria as anti-cancer agents. The researchers removed the gene responsible for the production of alpha-toxin (responsible for the breakdown of cytoskeletal structures in living cells) from Clostridium novyi, which thrives in hypoxic conditions, and proceeded to test the attenuated strain in various organisms by injecting spores directly into the tumor site. In each case, the modified bacteria consumed tumor cells while leaving healthy tissue intact. Reading about this research got me thinking about the healing power of destruction at large. Similar to the way in which the Johns Hopkins researchers saw the curing potential of flesh-eating bacteria, so did Marie Curie see the potential for panacea with radium. Upon observing radium’s destructive effects on her own healthy tissue, she reasoned that radium could also be used to destroy infected tissue. And thus the idea of radiation therapy was born (today, safer radioactive substances such as cobalt and cesium are used). Oftentimes, destruction seems catastrophic, devastating, and ultimately tragic. But destruction also holds the power to treat disease, create novel forms of life, and ultimately pave the way for new beginnings.

Life will always find a way.
In the natural world, severe disturbances to terrestrial communities, whether the result of natural disasters or human activity, often lead to a process called ecological succession in which a disturbed area is colonized by a variety of species, which are gradually replaced by other species, which are in turn replaced by still other species in a seemingly interminable circle-of-life cycle. Initially, severe environmental disturbances reduce species diversity, but life eventually reemerges. When this process begins in a practically lifeless area where soil has not yet formed, it is called primary succession. The only organisms initially present are usually prokaryotes and protists, and lichens and mosses are commonly the first macroscopic photosynthesizers on the scene. Soil eventually develops as rocks weather and organic matter from the decomposed remains of the first colonizers begins to accumulate. Once soil is present, lichens and mosses are usually overgrown by grasses, shrubs, and trees that sprout from seeds blown in from nearby areas or carried into the area by animals. Secondary succession occurs when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact, as in Yellowstone following the 1988 fires. Communities subject to these kinds of disturbances recover more quickly than those in which a disturbance has wiped out most of the native, resident life. Nevertheless, life always resurges.

Fossil evidence indicates that diversity of life has increased after each of the five big mass extinctions, due to adaptive radiations, periods of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms diversify into many new species whose adaptations facilitate the creation and development of new niches in their communities. Several of these radiations gave rise to adaptations that facilitated life on land. The radiation of land plants, for example, is associated with key adaptations, such as vascular systems to support against gravity and waxy cuticles to protect leaves from water loss. Even after events as devastating as mass extinctions, life, resilient as it is, picks up the pieces and begins to rebuild like the phoenix rising from the ashes.

It is a truth universally acknowledged that destruction and creation go hand in hand.
Using a computer simulation, Cardiff University astronomer Scott Balfour and his colleagues have recently reproduced the iconic and aptly named Pillars of Creation, a trio of gas columns located inside the Milky Way’s Eagle Nebula. The pillars themselves are the product of a massive nearby O-type star, but the formation of these star-creating factories has been unclear until now. O-stars are the universe’s largest, hottest stars, which lead very short lives and wreak havoc upon death. Balfour’s simulation shows that O-stars not only initiate the creation of stars in their nearby vicinity but also destroy star-forming clouds by compressing surrounding gas to initiate the birth of stars prematurely.

We are all star dust.
Perhaps the most poignant illustration of the creative power of destruction is the fact that our very existence is predicated upon the occurrence of a very destructive event: the death of a star, which sometimes results in a supernova. In the beginning was hydrogen, the simplest atom that exists. Only a star is capable of synthesizing heavier elements under extreme temperatures and pressures. Near the end of their lives, heavy-mass stars collapse and explode, scattering carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and other heavy elements across the galaxy. As Carl Sagan famously said, “The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, and the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars.” We are literally star stuff. NASA Astronomer Dr. Michelle Thaller eloquently explains the beautifully violent act by which we come into being:

Through the Looking Glass of Science

IMG_4942 IMG_4935
“The whole secret of the study of nature lies in learning how to use one’s eyes.”
―George Sand

“To see a world in a grain of sand,
And a heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour.”
―William Blake, “Auguries of Innocence”

“If you’re scientifically literate, the world looks very different to you, and that understanding empowers you.”
―Neil deGrasse Tyson

1) Science is a tool which indiscriminately allows us to obtain a greater understanding of the laws dictating the phenomena in our world and the universe at large.

The goal of science is to illuminate fundamental truths concerning the workings of the universe. As NPR blogger Adam Frank puts it, “Science — under all its theories, equations, experiments and data — is really trying to teach us to see the sacred in the mundane and the profound in the prosaic.” More than a subject, a discipline, or a field of study, science is a lens through which we can perceive our surroundings. As British biologist Lewis Wolpert expounded, “I would teach the world that science is the best way to understand the world, and that for any set of observations, there is only one correct explanation. Also, science is value-free, as it explains the world as it is.”

2) Closely attached to the practice of science is the cultivation of skepticism and the need for empirical evidence.

“The skeptic does not mean he who doubts, but he who investigates or researches, as opposed to he who asserts and thinks that he has found.”
―Miguel de Unamuno

“A central lesson of science is that to understand complex issues (or even simple ones), we must try to free our minds of dogma and to guarantee the freedom to publish, to contradict, and to experiment. Arguments from authority are unacceptable.”
―Carl Sagan

“If it disagrees with experiment, it’s wrong. In that simple statement is the key to science. It doesn’t make any difference how beautiful your guess is, it doesn’t matter how smart you are who made the guess, or what his name is… If it disagrees with experiment, it’s wrong. That’s all there is to it.”
Richard Feynman

Being a scientist requires having faith in uncertainty, finding pleasure in mystery, and learning to cultivate doubt. There is no surer way to screw up an experiment than to be certain of its outcome.”
Stuart Firestein

Much of the beauty of science lies in its objectivity. Science advances on a foundation rooted in empirical observation, painstaking data collection, accuracy, and reproducibility. Commitment to the scientific method is not a matter of faith. That being said…

3) Science is nourished not only by reason and observation but also by imagination. Science makes use of that wonderful blend of curiosity, skepticism, and imagination to create and innovate.

I believe in intuition and inspiration…Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real factor in scientific research.”
Albert Einstein, Cosmic Religion: With Other Opinions and Aphorismsp. 97 (1931)

“It is, I admit, mere imagination; but how often is imagination the mother of truth?”
Sherlock HolmesThe Valley of Fear

“In general we look for a new law by the following process. First we guess it…No! Don’t laugh―it’s really true!”
Richard Feynman

“It is important, at the present time, to bear in mind that the human soul has still greater need of the ideal than of the real. It is by the real that we exist; it is by the ideal that we live.”
―Victor Hugo, “William Shakespeare”

Kathleen Taylor, a research scientist in the department of physiology at Oxford University, writes about the complementarity between knowledge and imagination: “At both group and individual levels, knowledge facilitates community and continuity, while imagination facilitates change. Knowledge binds us to a sometimes-oppressive existence; imagination helps us escape it. However, imagination evolved as a tool for facilitating survival. Imagining, we take a step beyond what we know into the future or into another world. We see alternatives and possibilities; we work out what we need to reach our goals.”

Imagination and creativity often fuel the fires of scientific innovation. In the process, ideas previously considered impossible often become reality.

4) Science only adds to the mystery, wonder, and excitement; it cannot subtract. Sometimes, not having all the answers is part of the fun.

“I have a friend who’s an artist and has sometimes taken a view which I don’t agree with very well. He’ll hold up a flower and say ‘look how beautiful it is,’ and I’ll agree. Then he says ‘I as an artist can see how beautiful this is but you as a scientist take this all apart and it becomes a dull thing,’ and I think that he’s kind of nutty. First of all, the beauty that he sees is available to other people and to me too, I believe. Although I may not be quite as refined aesthetically as he is … I can appreciate the beauty of a flower. At the same time, I see much more about the flower than he sees. I could imagine the cells in there, the complicated actions inside, which also have a beauty. I mean it’s not just beauty at this dimension, at one centimeter; there’s also beauty at smaller dimensions, the inner structure, also the processes. The fact that the colors in the flower evolved in order to attract insects to pollinate it is interesting; it means that insects can see the color. It adds a question: does this aesthetic sense also exist in the lower forms? Why is it aesthetic? All kinds of interesting questions which the science knowledge only adds to the excitement, the mystery and the awe of a flower. It only adds. I don’t understand how it subtracts.”
―Richard Feynman

“The possession of knowledge does not kill
the sense of wonder and mystery.
There is always more mystery.”
―Anaïs Nin

“Music and physics are nourished by the same sort of longing.”
―Einstein’s character, Einstein and Eddington

 When I heard the Learn’d Astronomer

 When I heard the learn'd astronomer;
 When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me;
 When I was shown the charts and the diagrams, to add, divide, and
       measure them;
 When I, sitting, heard the astronomer, where he lectured with much
       applause in the lecture-room,
 How soon, unaccountable, I became tired and sick;
 Till rising and gliding out, I wander'd off by myself,
 In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,
 Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.

–Walt Whitman

The poem that Joan Feynman references is actually written by Walt Whitman. Nevertheless, I couldn’t disagree more with its fundamental claim: that science somehow robs nature of all its wonder and beauty. On the contrary, I feel that the science and math behind the laws of nature have a certain elegance of their own. The scientific beautifully complements the aesthetic, and for this reason, I will never be a proponent for the perpetuation of the “two worlds” ideology; science and the arts are two sides of the same coin. Rather than reduce the universe to a bunch of facts and figures, science frees the mind to experience the universe in all its glorious fullness, as it really is.

Happy 104th Birthday, Dorothy Hodgkin!

Dorothy Hodgkins Google Doodle

Google Doodle displaying the structure of a penicillin molecule, which Dorothy Hodgkin discovered using X-ray crystallography

Today, Google celebrates the legacy of British chemist Dorothy Hodgkin with a doodle on its homepage. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, born May 12, 1910 in Egypt but raised in England, was fascinated by crystals from a young age and received a book authored by Nobel Prize-winning physicist William Henry Bragg on her 16th birthday, sparking her interest in X-ray crystallography. Hodgkin studied physics and chemistry as an undergraduate at Somerville College at the University of Oxford and received her doctorate in chemistry from Cambridge University. Despite being diagnosed at only 24 with rheumatoid arthritis, which eventually crippled her hands and feet, Hodgkin never ceased in her pursuit of scientific truth.

She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964–making her the third woman to win the award after Marie Curie and Irene Joliot-Curie–for elucidating the structures of Vitamin B12 and penicillin using X-ray crystallography, the same technique that Rosalind Franklin employed to illuminate the double helical structure of DNA. X-ray crystallography allows a researcher to discern a molecule’s three-dimensional arrangement of atoms by shooting X-rays at a crystallized sample of the substance of interest and then observing the pattern of diffracted X-rays as they bounce off the electrons of the atoms in the crystal. The structure of penicillin, which Hodgkin discovered while working alongside colleague Ernst Chain in 1946, is shown in the Google doodle; Hodgkin’s model is on display at the Science Museum in London. In announcing her prize, the Swedish Academy of Science praised Hodgkin’s “exceptional skill, in which chemical knowledge, intuition, imagination, and perseverance have been conspicuous.” In 1969, after 35 years of work, Hodgkin was also able to decipher the structure of insulin.

Aside from her scientific endeavors, Hodgkin was also an active humanitarian. From 1976 to 1988, she served as chair of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, an international organization of scholars and public figures inspired by a manifesto written by Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell and aimed at reducing and eliminating the threat posed to humanity by nuclear weapons and war.

Hodgkin won the Lenin Peace Prize and earned the Order of Merit, Britain’s most respected royal order, making her the second woman to have done so after Florence Nightingale, who was also born this day in 1820. The Order of Merit is limited at any time to 24 members who have excelled in science, art, letters, or the armed services. Hodgkin was the first woman to win the Copley Medal and remains the only British woman to have ever received a Nobel Prize in the sciences. She died in July 1994, at age 84, after suffering a stroke. Upon her death, The Times of London observed, “She will always be remembered for her discovery of the structure of penicillin, of the antipernicious anemia factor vitamin B12 and of the diabetic hormone, insulin.” An obituary beautifully described her in this way:

“She pursued her crystallographic studies, not for the sake of honours, but because this was what she liked to do. There was magic about her person. She had no enemies, not even among those whose scientific theories she demolished or whose political views she opposed. Just as her X-ray cameras bared the intrinsic beauty beneath the rough surface of things, so the warmth and gentleness of her approach to people uncovered in everyone, even the most hardened scientific crook, some hidden kernel of goodness.”

Suspended in a Sunbeam: On Being Awestruck

Lately, I have been discovering many stories on awe-inspiring phenomena and the benefits of experiencing such phenomena. Just a few days ago, The Huffington Post shared a video showcasing the wonders of the universe:

A year ago, performance philosopher Jason Silva created a video discussing psychologist Nicholas Humphrey’s thoughts on the biological advantage of  being awestruck:

Jason Silva now hosts a webseries called “Shots of Awe” on Discovery’s TestTube network. Leslie Horn of Gizmodo writes, “The series discusses everything from the universe to technology, society, science, and much more, all in the tone of the boundary-pushing lectures of Alan Watts. If Carl Sagan or Timothy Leary had been born in the YouTube age, their videos might have looked something like this. Silva travels outside of the box where your brain normally resides and causes you to ponder life in a more philosophical sense.”

In his premiere episode, Jason Silva defines awe as “an experience of such perceptual vastness you literally have to reconfigure your mental models of the world to assimilate it,” an explanation provided by a Stanford study published in Psychological Science. Silva argues that human beings have a tendency to quickly become acclimated to routine habits and consequently rarely step outside of their comfort zones in a phenomenon known as hedonic adaptation. Henry David Thoreau also discusses the dangers of becoming stuck in a rut in Walden: “How worn and dusty, then, must be the highways of the world, how deep the ruts of tradition and conformity!” He goes on to describe his recommended alternative:

"I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, 
to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could 
not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, 
discover that I had not lived.... I wanted to live deep and
suck out all the marrow of life..."

Thoreau’s message is highly evocative of carpe diem, Latin for “seize (or more literally, pluck) the day,” a sentiment also expressed in Robert Herrick’s “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time” and Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress.” So how exactly do we elicit wonder in our seemingly banal existences? Arizona State University psychology Dr. Michelle Shiota suggests, “The experience of awe involves feeling very small and insignificant yet also connected to something much greater than the self.” Lee Ann Womack expresses a similar sentiment in her song, “I Hope You Dance” with lyrics such as “I hope you never lose your sense of wonder” and “I hope you still feel small when you stand beside the ocean.” This idea of humbling awe and experience is perhaps best immortalized in Carl Sagan’s timeless ode to Earth, “Pale Blue Dot.”

Looking for a source of awe and inspiration? While Halley’s Comet won’t be headed our way until 2061, debris from the familiar comet will be visible tonight in the form of the Eta Aquarid meteor showers, which will reach their peak early Tuesday morning, May 6th. The Eta Aquarids produce some of the fastest shooting stars of any annual meteor shower, blazing into our atmosphere at 44 miles per second! Blink, and you’ll miss them. Only the Leonids of November travel faster. The best time to view the meteor shower will be around 4 a.m. your local time. Viewers in the Southern hemisphere will be able to see up to 60 meteors per hour at the showers’ peak while those in the Northern hemisphere can expect to see around 10 meteors per hour at peak. Since the waxing crescent moon will set just after 1 a.m. EST, the skies will be perfectly dark for the showers. If weather proves to be a hindrance, you can catch Slooh’s live coverage of the event beginning at 9 p.m. EST with host astronomer Bob Berman.

Eta Aquarid Meteor Shower

A bright, earthgrazing Eta Aquarid meteor streaks across Perseus on May 6, 2013. Because the radiant is low for northern hemisphere observers, watch for earthgrazers – long, bright meteors that come up from near the horizon and have long-lasting trails. (Credit: Bob King via Universe Today)

If you’re unable to catch the Comet Halley debris this time, don’t worry. Earth will again pass through the Halley dust stream during the Orionid meteor showers in October. Additionally, skywatchers are expected to witness the birth of a brand new meteor shower caused by comet LINEAR on May 23-24! If predictions hold true, 200 to 400 meteors per hour will shoot across the sky in a remarkable celestial display in contention for the strongest showers of the year and maybe even our lives!

If music awes and inspires you, here is a playlist I compiled intended to capture the experience of being awestruck. Stay starry-eyed, my friends!

New Element Confirmed!

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Illustration of the newly created element 117. (Image Credit: Lawrence Livermore/Shutterstock)

The periodic table has just received a recent addition in the form of super-heavy element 117. A US-Russian collaboration first announced the creation of the new element, temporarily being named ununseptium, in 2010. In a press release, Professor David Hinde of the Australian National University Nuclear Physics Department, one of the authors of a paper published today in Physics Review Letters, said, “Making element 117 is at the absolute boundary of what is possible right now.”

Prior to 1930, the periodic table only contained naturally-occurring elements, the heaviest of which was uranium, atomic number 92. Since then, nuclear physics experiments have yielded an additional 27 elements. The target needed to produce element 117, berkelium-249, is itself extremely hard to generate, according to Physics World. Hinde was part of the team at the GSI laboratory in Germany that fused calcium-48 and berkelium-249. More than 1,019 atoms of calcium-48 were fired at the berkelium target to produce just four atoms of element 117. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry has to accept confirmation before the element is officially added to the periodic table.

Ununseptium’s position on the periodic table places it in the halogen family along with fluorine and chlorine, elements that are characterized by high electron affinity. However, as one moves down a column on the periodic table, this tendency decreases. It is thought that if enough ununseptium could be produced to observe chemical interactions, element 117 would be more likely to lose rather than gain electrons.

With a dozen discoveries since he wrote “The Elements,” perhaps Tom Lehrer should come out of retirement to add more lines to his song.

Thankfully, until then, AsapSCIENCE has us covered: